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Hawaiian Trail & Mountain Corp.

About HTMC


Vintage HTMC photo

Our many thanks to Past-President John Hall for researching and writing up this history of HTMC.

The Early Years: Power, Energy, and Ambition

The original Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Club was founded in 1910 almost as a quasi-official branch of the Territorial Government (I hope that I have added enough qualifiers to that statement). It happened this way: In 1907 a delegation of the Territorial Transportation Committee traveled to Australia and New Zealand to discuss plans to stimulate travel to the Pacific region with the tourism agencies of those countries. While there, the delegation investigated the tourist attractions that these lands had to offer, and found that one popular feature was the network of trails with conveniently spaced rest houses along them that allowed visitors to reach areas of scenic beauty or other value.

On its return to Hawai’i, the group recommended that a similar trail system be established in the Islands (4).

Not much was done for several years, but in 1910, Alexander Hume Ford, who also started the Outrigger Canoe Club and the Pan Pacific Union, called a convention for the purpose of establishing a Club to promote the building of such a trails system. Ford was not one for half-measures and a major effort was made to get the Club off to a flying start. Not only were representatives from each of the major outer Islands invited, but a delegation from the Appalachian Club of New England and another from the Sierra Club of California were in attendance. (And remember, this was before commercial air travel. The Panama Canal was not even open for business yet. To come to Hawai’i was a long, serious trip, especially for the New Englanders.)(1). On April 5, 1910, the Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Corporation was founded with 100 charter members, each paying $5.00 in initiation fees and $5.00 a year dues (4). (Multiply by 10 or even 50 for the equivalent in buying power in today’s dollars.) A few years ago, I saw a list of these charter members, and as I recall, they represented the elite of the plantation, business, professional, and social community of Hawai’i at that time. It was mainly a haole elite in those days, of course, but there were one or two Hawaiians of royal blood and a Chinese name or two, probably wealthy merchants who were beginning to make their mark on the commercial scene in the Islands. Plainly, HTMC was considered to be one of THE organizations to belong to if you had any aspiration to social status in Honolulu. (We still consider it one of THE organizations to belong to, of course, and if our current crop of social climbers fail to recognize the fact, we must just struggle along without them!)

It must not be thought that the Club was primarily designed for frivolous status seekers, however. The second objective listed in the Club’s Constitution was to construct and maintain trails and roads leading to objects of natural interest, and rest houses incidental thereto. The members set about achieving this objective with great energy and dispatch. They were able to command an impressive range of resources for the time – indeed, resources that are certainly far beyond our current capacities. Remember that many of the charter members owned or controlled large plantations and had at their disposal a numerous work force. This included crews with much experience in building the tunnels and ditches needed to move water from the windward coast to the sugar cane fields in the central valley, and the trails necessary to reach these construction sites in rugged mountain terrain and to maintain the water works after they were finished. During slack periods on the plantations, these crews were available to build the trail system desired by the Club.

By the end of 1911, little more than a year after the founding of the Club, a major network of trails had already been built. The initial focus of this effort was to create a “grid” of trails behind Honolulu, which meant, at that time, in the mountains extending from Moanalua Valley to Palolo Valley, these being the areas that could be readily reached from the City in the days when few people owned an automobile. Mrs. C. M. Cooke cut a trail from the Pali Road across the dam of the Nu’uanu Reservoir and up the side of Nu’uanu Valley to the Lookout (2). (Most of this has since disappeared, although portions of it have recently been found.) At this time, much native vegetation still remained in the Valley. In describing this trail, the Sunday Advertiser in 1911 states: “There are a hundred varied subjects for the camera to catch. The lobelia, of which there are a hundred varieties in the island, stands out conspicuously.” (3). What a joy it would be to find the lobelia standing out conspicuously, anywhere, now! Judge Cooper had a trail built from Woodlawn to the summit of Wa’ahila Ridge, and on to the top of Mt. Olympus (2). Probably part of this is still in use as the Kolowalu Trail. However, the most ambitious projects were carried out by the first Club president, William R. Castle (3). I believe that he was responsible for the horse trail that was constructed from behind Punchbowl Crater up Pauoa Valley to the Nu’uanu Lookout, near which a rest house was planned (1). Parts of this track may now form sections of the Pauoa Woods and Tantalus Ramble trails (?). He probably also built the “new cliff trail along Manoa heights” (the Manoa Cliffs/Kalawahine trail?) for the Club (3). His most ambitious effort, however, was a long contour trail that began at the end of Mrs. Cooke’s trail at Nu’uanu Lookout. The path ran along the Nu’uanu side of the ridge leading to the summit of Pu’u Konahuanui until it reached a saddle, which it crossed to the Manoa side. At this point, it was cut into the steep wall behind Manoa, at a high level that sometimes reached the Pali crest, to Mt. Olympus where the track joined the Cooper trail. It then descended on switchbacks to the rim of Ka’au Crater to join an old Hawaiian trail, and passed around the rim to the outlet on the far side, where the Club had cut a series of steps and switchbacks to the floor of the gulch that leads out to 10th Avenue. A rest house was planned (and perhaps built?) on the rim of Ka’au Crater, and there were plans to dam the outlet and create a lake on the Crater floor (3). (An interesting idea!) Castle may not have planned to do quite this much work for the Club. Apparently, during this building phase, he was obliged to leave the Islands on business for several months. He expected the trail building to be completed in short order and let Alexander Hume Ford take over supervision of the workers on the project. Much to his surprise, they were still hard at work, and still drawing pay from his office, when he returned. He had not expected it to be such a long job, but apparently did not protest too vigorously (2). Much of this trail on the steeper slopes has probably been lost to landslides over the past 90 years, but we (Wing Ng, Scott Villiger, Ed Gilman, and many others) have been able to recover portions of it and hope to reopen these to at least limited and cautious hiking.

This trail complex was so well graded, and easy of passage, that it was suitable for what would now be considered trail runners. The Club, in association with the Amateur Athletic Union, planned to sponsor annual hikes along the system, from Nu’uanu Valley to Kaimuki, and maintain records of the times taken to complete the trek. Hikers would begin at the end of the tram line in Nu’uanu, walk 3 miles up the Pali Road to Mrs. Cooke’s trail, follow this to the Nu’uanu Lookout and then take the Castle-Olympus trail around behind Manoa Valley and down to Ka’au Crater and the floor of the gulch leading to 10th Avenue. Another 3 mile walk on roads to the end of the tram line in Kaimuki would complete the event. It was estimated that a reasonably fit walker could compete this trek in 7 hours, and that the young, competitive sports would finish it in something over 4 hours! (3).

In addition to these new projects, many miles of ditch trails were opened for the use of the Club by plantation owners, and prominent businessmen offered summer cottages and mountain huts for use as rest houses (1). James Castle, William’s brother, turned over his trail behind Hau’ula (the Castle Trail in Punalu’u) to the Club for its use, along with the hut on Kaluanui stream (which feeds “Sacred Falls”) high in the mountains (7). It was planned that eventually there would be a rest house every 10 miles along the trails. The general plan for the rest houses, modeled after those seen in New Zealand, was to have a bunkhouse each for the men and the women, separated by a lanai where food could be served. In addition, there would be quarters for a caretaker and his wife who would look after the place and prepare the food (1). How many, if any, rest houses of any description were ever built is not clear to me. Some of the references seem be imply that one or another is in existence at the time of writing; others are mentioned as being under construction. Certainly, some of the buildings were already in existence, such as the hut on Tantalus that S. M. Ballou placed at the disposal of the Club (7). I do not know of any that were still present when I began hiking with the Club in 1962, but considering that the coast watcher’s huts that the Army constructed along the Summit Trail on the outbreak of World War II were derelict and on the verge of collapse by that time, it would not be surprising if wooden shacks that were several decades older had already disappeared completely, save perhaps for a pile of rusting roofing iron.

Not all the Club activities were focused on trail construction, however. In 1911, 150 members chartered the steamer Likelike and sailed to Maui. Five of them climbed Iao Needle, but were disappointed to discover that they were not the first; a rock platform on the top with a bottle containing a register showed that others had already reached this summit. On the last day of 1914, another excursion to Maui by 129 people took place. The hikers ascended Kaupo Gap to Paliku, crossed Haleakala Crater, went up the Sliding Sands trail and down to Olinda. The gear was carried by donkeys, but the group was not really prepared for such a camping trip, and at that altitude, the rice burned before it was half-cooked, there were not enough tents for everyone, and in general, many in the party had a miserable time.

After the initial burst of trail-building activity, the pace of the Club’s construction activities slackened markedly. W. R. Castle continued to carry out repairs to the Castle-Olympus trail as late as 1913, but there was already concern that the trail might be responsible for an increase in the number of landslides along its route. There was also a worrisome tendency for Hilo grass, an invasive alien, to migrate along the trail into native forest (2). Because of these concerns, and fear that people in these mountains might contaminate the water supply, the mountains above Manoa Valley were placed in a closed watershed district in 1922, and further use of the Castle-Olympus trail forbidden. Only after it was discovered that surface water on the mountains took about 3 years to reach the wells supplying the City was this designation down-graded to restricted watershed and limited entry again possible.

In 1914, World War I began. The movers and shakers who were officers of the Club, as well as major figures in the business and political life of the Territory, turned their attention to the serious events taking place in the world at large, with all the potential they had for influencing life in Hawai’i. Not only were no new construction projects initiated, but even hiking and the social activities of the Club dwindled until the organization became essentially dormant (7). After a few years when HTMC was a vital, energetic force in the social life of Honolulu, the organization came close to extinction.

Building the Clubhouse

After the war’s end, in May of 1919, the Club was reorganized with somewhat less elite, though still distinguished, leadership, and annual dues were cut to $2.50 to attract more members. By the end of the month, 74 paid-up members were enrolled. For a while, the Club employed a man to maintain the trails, but funds were never abundant, and although labor was very cheap by today’s standards, it was decided in 1921 to discontinue this practice (7).

The Club leased a lot from the Territory at Koke’e, on Kaua’i, for $9.00 a year, and planned to construct a simple cabin on it. Eight members traveled to Kaua’i in August, 1920, to build this structure, but discovered that all available trucks were engaged in hauling pineapples and none could be hired to carry the building materials up to the lot. Later, a contractor was paid $417.80 to build the cabin. The Club soon discovered that the trouble and expense of maintaining such a seldom used structure was a burden however, and when it was found that the contractor had put it on the wrong lot, and the Territory brought pressure on the Club to move it, it was decided to sell the shack at considerable loss for $150.00 and forget about outer Island base camps! (7).

In 1922, a bad year for HTMC, the Club president absconded with $663.50 in Club funds – money deposited by 20 people for steamer fare and hotel reservations for a planned trip to Maui. The man held a clerical position with the British Club, and 2 members of that organization who were also HTMC members, paid $100.00 apiece to cover part of his debt. The absconder eventually returned $350.00 to the club, but never repaid these friends, and it took the Club over a year to cover all the debts accumulated during this fiasco (7).

On February 5, 1922, the Club suffered the first of 5 fatalities that have occurred due to mishaps on Club-sponsored events. Two women, teachers, were hiking with the Club on the Blow Hole – Hanauma Bay hike when a high wave swept them off the shelf. One of them managed to cling to the rock and was saved, but the other drowned. It is interesting to note that 3 of the 5 fatalities occurred on the Club’s relatively infrequent ocean-side outings, and only 2 involved falls from our obviously dangerous, regularly used, cliff-skirting ridge hikes (7).

According to Joe Neilson, the Club was split into two factions at this time. The “hikers” wanted any money available to be spent on trails and perhaps on cabins on the outer Islands, while the “lounge lizards” wanted a clubhouse to serve as a social center and a place where they could dance, as a dance craze was sweeping the country in the ‘20’s (6). Ray Jerome Baker, well-known photographer and world traveler, who was frequently Club president in these years, was strongly in favor of a clubhouse (5). Very little fee-simple land was available on O’ahu, but about this time, the Territory decided to subdivide the land it held on the makai side of the highway in Waimanalo Beach and auction off 10,000 sq. ft. parcels, with the stipulation that a building be constructed on each within a certain specified time. The Club bid on a lot and was successful in obtaining one on December 14, 1925, for $1500.00, (or so I have been told, although none of my sources mention a dollar figure.) By 1926, the Club had been able to raise $1784.44 for building materials (7). At this time, photographs show the clubhouse standing alone among sand flats and lantana scrub, with no other building in sight for miles around. Joe says that many people in those days would build a simple house. When they got a little more money, they would jack it up, put it on stilts, and turn it into a two story house. Often they would live on the sketchily enclosed ground floor and reserve the upper floor for guests. The clubhouse was built along similar lines. No slab was poured, but only footings for the pillars that held up the second floor. Club members did the work, and Joe says that most of them were teachers or book keepers or similar types who were unaccustomed to working with their hands, with the result that the clubhouse ended up looking like it had been built by a crew of enthusiastic, but inexpert amateurs. It was. A lanai, not specified in the building permit, was added on one end of the building, and this deviation from plan was not regularized and made legal until 2003! The lanai was later enclosed and the wall separating it from the main room removed. Because of the interest in using the building for dancing, the sturdiest and best built part of the structure was the upstairs floor. Although no floor had been laid at ground level, the walls were extended down to the sandy soil. I am told that the Formosan termite had not yet arrived in the Islands, or least not in Waimanalo, and no one was concerned about the risk it posed to the structure. A year later, a concrete floor was poured, creating the patchwork slab that can still be observed on the first floor. The lot was fenced to keep roving stock out (6,7).

The women in the Club realized the need for a cesspool, since sewer lines did not extend to Waimanalo Beach, and they persuaded the sugar mill manager to donate a retired cast iron boiler from the mill and undertook to move it to the clubhouse. The boiler was a cylinder 12 ft long and 12 ft in diameter, open at one end and closed at the other, but with a manhole in this end. With the help of R. J. Baker’s touring car and some long ropes, they rolled this boiler the half mile from the mill to the clubhouse. The ropes were looped around the cylinder, lying on its side, and the lower ends tied to trees or stakes in the ground. The ends coming over the top of the boiler were attached to the car or pulled on by hand to move the thing. Once it reached the clubhouse, it was turned on end in the desired location, open end down, and members climbed in through the manhole and began to dig, passing the sand out through the manhole in buckets. The great cylinder slowly sank into the sand until it reached the proper depth. Then connections were made with the plumbing in the two bathrooms (6).

Joe says that palm trees were planted around the cesspool for decoration, but within a few years this had the unfortunate effect that a 6 or 8 inch thick mat of palm roots had formed at the bottom of the cylinder, and it would no longer drain effectively. Joe was a member of the club at this time (he recalls joining about 1930) and undertook to deal with the problem. The cesspool was allowed to dry out, and he climbed in with a pick and hacked away at the mass of palm roots. It took him 4 or 5 hours, a hot, dirty ordeal complicated by the fact that the members preparing a meal that was to reward the workers had trouble remembering that they were not to use the toilet, or at least, not to FLUSH the toilet, while he was working, so that he occasionally had to leap to one side to avoid a stream of discharge from the pipe (6). Joe was never a patient man, and I can imagine the stream of indignant, outraged, (though never profane) comment that ensued.

On July 31, 1927, HTMC member Prof. Burt Albert Tower died while hiking with his wife and friends in the Wai’anae Range. He apparently suffered a heart attack. It is not clear from R. J. Baker’s narrative whether they were on a Club-sponsored hike or just out with friends (7). The Club membership stood at about 100 people at this time.

In The Doldrums: Depression and War

For a number of years, the Club had owned an old Cadillac to help ferry members to trailheads before hikes. This was retired in 1929 and a used truck purchased to replace it. The truck was in use until 1933, when the increase in privately owned vehicles made it no longer necessary for the Club to maintain one (7).

In 1930, the last payment of $350.00 was made on the clubhouse lot, leaving the Club finally free of debt. The Club president and his wife resigned from the Club over the issue of spending money on the clubhouse property rather than on trails, a chronic source of dissention within the organization in these years. A year later power lines reached Waimanalo Beach and the clubhouse acquired electric lights. The depression hit the Club hard, as it did people in general, and in 1933 membership was down to 52, fluctuating in these years and through World War II, and finally reaching a low of 36 in 1943.

The first application for membership by a young man of Japanese ancestry was made in 1937. Three Directors opposed his membership and he was turned down. He apparently acted as a translator for the Army in World War II. R. J. Baker says that he was eventually admitted as an HTMC member. There was considerable controversy in these years over the issue of admitting people of Asian ancestry to membership. Brunhilde Kaufer, Club Secretary, resigned in 1938 over the refusal to admit AJA’s, and Joe Neilson, a Director, also resigned but was persuaded to remain in the Club. Dr. Stephen B. Jones, a Geography Professor, and Club Director, made a list of 12 recommendations to increase Club membership, but refused to serve as Membership Chair unless all discrimination was ended. As R. J. Baker mentions, eventually the Club admitted everyone without regard to ethnic background with no protest, but it is not clear when this laudable goal was finally achieved (7). Today, it is hard for us to understand why such prejudices ever existed, but friends of my generation still, understandably, harbor fierce resentment over the shabby and humiliating treatment that was often applied to people of non-haole ancestry in years past.

The next few years were tragic ones. A young serviceman, Luciano Peña, of Mexican ancestry, joined the Club in June of 1938. He proved to be a great asset to the Club and highly popular, and was elected a Director the following April. Apparently the Club had a tradition of visiting Manana Island (Rabbit Island) every July 4th, and a goodsized crowd gathered in 1939 for this trip. A new member, Phil Kantner, and a nonmember female friend of his, attempted to walk along one of the lower ledges of the island on the windward side, apparently against the advice of some members. They were swept off the ledge by the heavy seas, and Pena dove in and succeeded in rescuing the girl. He then returned for Kantner, but although he was a strong swimmer, the conditions were too severe for his strength and they both drowned (7).

On the Kanehoa-Hapapa hike in June, 1940, a young Chinese girl, 16 or 17 years old and apparently not known to anyone in the Club joined the group. She fell from the ridge while crossing one of the treacherous narrow sections alone, and was killed. It was not possible to retrieve her body until the next day (7).

The “Sales Builder” printed a “complete” guide to trails in Hawai’i, including the outer islands as well as O’ahu, in 1938. An old time hiker, Judd, gave this sage advice to those who would use the trails:” Always keep to ridges when hiking on Oahu. That’s what the early Hawaiians did. Too dangerous to traverse gulches in deeply eroded country”, and “remember that water drunk before noon turns to lead in your feet.” (!?) (4).

In 1938, the lot behind the clubhouse came up for sale, and the Directors authorized a bid of up to $650 for it. However, someone else wanted it more, and bought it for $675 (7).

One of the Club members, Ann Satterthwaite, had purchased the lot mauka of the Club property at the same time the Club bought the clubhouse lot. She had never been able to afford the required improvements on the lot, and still owed a substantial sum for the land. As mentioned above, the Club was interested in acquiring an additional lot, although Joe recalls that there was debate at the time about buying her property, and that the purchase was finally made as much to accommodate an old member who had been of great service to HTMC as out of any desire for the lot. In any case, the Club bought this property from Miss Satterthwaite in 1941 for $950.00, less than she had paid for it (6,7). This is the lot on which the volleyball court is now situated, and the potential site of a new clubhouse.

Wartime restrictions limited the number of hikes that could be scheduled, and this contributed to the decline in membership. The beach below the clubhouse had been strung with barbed wire during the war, and dugouts were built along the bank with sentries stationed in the area for a time. As the war neared its end, however the restrictions were eased and it was possible to resume regular hikes. Attendance was up, with 19 people and a dog climbing Alewa Heights in March, 1943. By the April meeting in 1945, membership was up to 65 people and the average hike attracted about 15 participants. Bessie Iwai, employed by the Tongg Publishing Co., arranged to have the monthly schedules printed and distributed. Previously they had been laboriously duplicated and mailed by Club members. In 1950, the Directors decided that schedules could be prepared and mailed quarterly, with a substantial savings in effort and postage (7).

After World War II

The Club purchased a war surplus Quonset hut from Dan’s Lumber Yard for $550.00, including delivery, but another $75.00 was charged for aligning it on the lot. Joe recalls that he and a few other members spent the night at the clubhouse when the Quonset hut was due to be delivered. (Such a large object had to be moved in the middle of the night, of course, to minimize disruption of traffic and the inconvenience occasioned by cutting and repairing the occasional low, road-crossing power or telephone line.) It was fortunate they did. They woke up in the early morning hours to the noise of some disturbance, and realized that the movers had arrived and were beginning to install the hut on the lot across the street! They quickly arranged to have the Quonset hut placed on the correct lot. The Club was occupied for the rest of the year with installing bathroom facilities and a kitchen in this building, to qualify it as a dwelling and meet the Territorial stipulations on the original sale of the lot (6,7). The Quonset hut served as a dormitory for many years until the steel beams supporting the floor began to rust through and it became too hazardous to use. We found a charitable organization, in Wai’anae, I think, that wanted the building and was willing to move it, and donated it to them. I believe I was Club president at the time – probably in the 1980’s.

During the Great Depression, many intelligent people lost faith in the ability of capitalism to provide a just and effective economic system, and began to consider the possibility that some form of socialism, or a mixed economy, might be better. With the rise of Communism in Russia, some people even became ardent Communists, although by 1948 the horrors of the Stalinist regime were widely known. A curious episode took place at this time, in which two or three Club members, sisters, who, it seems, were dedicated Communists, apparently attempted to gain control of HTMC, presumably to use its enormous prestige and vast resources in the service of the World Revolution. R. J. Baker does not describe this incident in great detail, and I suspect he played a more important role than he gives himself credit for in his History. The sisters invited those Club members that they felt would be sympathetic to their cause to a meeting at their home. Not all the left-leaning members in attendance were members of the party or blind followers of the party line, however, and heated argument ensued. It was pointed out that some Club members worked at Pearl Harbor. Even though they might have no sympathies for the radical cause themselves, their jobs might be endangered if it were known that there were active Communists in the Club, such was the climate of anti-Communist hysteria at the time. After much debate, no action was taken at the meeting, and a short time later the three sisters resigned from the Club (7).

At the end of February, 1950 there was another serious accident on a hike by Club members. Dick Davis and other Club members were returning from a climb of Mt. Ka’ala (long before there was a road to the top) and Dick grabbed a rope to aid in crossing a steep slope, not realizing that it was not fastened to anything. He fell, bounced, and rolled headlong down the steep mountain, falling an estimated 400 ft. and landing in a dry stream bed. Joe Neilson, the current Club president, was the first to reach him and said that he was lucky to be alive. Dick had severe back injuries, requiring several operations, and has said that he was told he would never walk again. None the less, after some time he recovered and was active in leading Club hikes for many years afterwards (7).

Six years later, at the end of November, 1956, another fatal accident occurred on a Club hike. Dr. Frank Hinman, an Entomology Professor at UH Manoa, fell to his death during the Pu’u Manamana hike, when a rock he was using as a handhold gave way. RJB only mentions that he fell from a rocky crag in Kahana Valley, but I had always heard that the fall took place above Crouching Lion. He fell about 150 feet before striking the guava shrubs and continued to roll down two more ledges before coming to rest. Death was apparently instantaneous (7). Happily for the Club, this has been the last fatality due to mishap on a Club-sponsored event, to date. We have been very fortunate, considering the often hazardous conditions that we encounter, and it is a tribute to the care that past leaders and hikers have taken over the years, as well as to extraordinary good luck.

Ray Jerome Baker’s detailed history of the Trail and Mountain Club ends in 1960, and until someone has the stamina to comb through the minutes of the Directors’ Meetings, Committee Reports, Reports to the Annual Meeting, and such records to compile a similar history from that date, we must do without.


  1. “The Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Corporation” by Guy H. Tuttle (Historian of the Club); Mid Pacific Magazine; Vol. 1, No. 1; January, 1911.
  2. “Castle (Olympus) Including the Cooke and Cooper Trails” by Stuart Ball; a compilation of items from newspaper clippings in Club scrapbook, mostly dating from 1911 until the late 1920’s.
  3. “One Day Along A Mountain Trail” – Anonymous; from the Advertiser, Sunday, September 10, 1911.
  4. “Hitting the trail in Hawaii” – trails and hiking in Hawaii and a complete trail guide of Oahu. The Sales Builder – May 1938, published monthly by the StarBulletin Printing House. No. 5, Vol. 11. George Mellen, ed.
  5. “Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Corporation 1971-1972” An “Annual” by Broder Lucas, Club President.
  6. Reminiscences by Joe Neilson. Joe thinks that he joined the Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Corporation in 1930, or thereabouts. He must have been still in his teens at the time and is easily the member with the longest acquaintance with the Club. I talked to him on February 17, 2002, in regard to the original building permit for the clubhouse, and found his reminiscences so interesting, that I made some notes on them and later confirmed various points in further conversations.
  7. “A Brief History of the Hawaiian Trail and Mountain Corporation” by Ray Jerome Baker – compiled from official and other records of the Club in 1960. 134 pages plus appendices. A copy is in the Club library.